To cite works of others, APA style uses an author-date citation method.
There are many different aspects that combined, create the marketing orientation: The marketing mix is one of these and is made up of four vital aspects, Place, Price, Product and Promotion.
Jobber And John Fahay, Foundation of marketing The product will vary depending on the target market i.
They are aimed at customers with a lower income and smaller budget. When designing a product or service a company must look to attract customers and try to offer something different, something that would make customers want to buy their goods as apposed to a similar company offering similar goods, they must try and find a unique selling point.
Price — Pricing your product or service is vital and one of the most important decisions to make; too high and customers may not be willing to pay that price, resulting in fewer sales and ultimately a lower profit. And too low could also prevent a company from making a profit.
To ensure that you are breaking even then the price you sell your product at must be more then the total cost you have incurred manufacturing the product or delivering a service. A business must find a balance between the two to ensure the customer is satisfied with the price, and to still generate substantial revenue.
There are many approaches to pricing that a business could choose to use depending on the product or service. A few examples of this are: Penetration Pricing — Initially, the price charged for a product or service is set relatively low, and lower than many competitors to gain market share and establish a wide customer base.
Once this is achieved the price is then increased. An example of this is Sky. When they first began to enter into the market they used a penetration pricing method to attract customers which worked.
Now Sky own a massive Price skimming is also another common method of pricing. Companies such as Apple have done this with their Ipod as they can charge a high price because they already have the market share and people will want to purchase their products as they are popular and of a good quality.
Apple can be said to have high inelasticity of demand, whereby they could and do charge expensive amounts for their products, however people still choose to buy them regardless. Price skimming involves charging a high price because you have substantial competitive advantage.
Physiological pricing is a further pricing method. It is used to encourage purchases by making is seem as if the product is a lot cheaper when in reality it is not. It is designed to encourage purchases on an emotional level rather than a conscious, rational level as in a way it almost tricks the buyer into believing that a product is a lot cheaper when in actual fact its not.
A further method which relates to pricing are loyalty schemes that some companies offer, such as Tesco, in the form of points cards which can be used to purchase petrol or to save money on future purchases.
Peppers and rogets suggested that, when used as part of an overall strategy of creating value for existing customers, they make sense, but otherwise they are essentially just another costly marketing promotion.
Page Principles of direct and database marketing — alan tapp, third edition Place- Place refers to how your product or service is distributed, or where it can be purchased by the customer.
It involves not only how the sale is made but the distribution process. The choice of the way a product or service is disrributed will vary from company to company and will depend on a variety of circumstances.
Many product manufactures will sell first to wholesales who then sell onto retailers, or some companies may chose to sell straight to retailers themselves. Promotion — Promotion is a vital aspect of the marketing mix and can be seen as one of the most important.
Promotion is needed to educate the public about a product or service, to sell the good and to attract people to a specific company without promotion then people simply will not know and this will result in a reduction of sales and reduced profit margins.
The right method of promoting a product will depend on a number of variables and is also a further key aspect; for example take a company who sell stair lifts to the elderly and disabled. Using television would be a good way of advertising as it reaches millions of people, however they must then look into the best times at which to advertise, the appropriate channels and inbetween which TV programmes.
Thorough market research must be carried out into which tv programmes the people in these categories watch. Like I said, research must be carried out to ensure money is not wasted and the promotional method works successfully.
As we can see by the table on the left taken from http:For Authors Page Content Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR) consists of review articles written by experts, who discuss the latest advances in their field in a . APA Style Reference Citations Finberg and Skipp (, pp.
) discuss 6. If a work has two authors and they are not included in the text, insert within parentheses, the last cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; include the last name followed by "et al." and the year in subsequent citations of the same reference. [pic] Discuss, with reference to current authors, what is meant by a ‘marketing orientation’ and/or a “marketing oriented company.” Illustrate your answer with examples of products or brands of your choice.
Current Biology is a hybrid journal in that it offers all authors the option to pay for gold open access for their papers (either via a funding body agreement or author payment). Editorial Evaluation Timeline. The median annual wage for writers and authors was $61, in May The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned kaja-net.com-level education: Bachelor's degree.
This page is a list of environmental books. In this context they are notable books that describe, as a major theme, the effects of human activity on the environment.