The hardback edition is a larger format with larger maps and photographs, made to last it is ideal as a collectors item on the shelf or displaying on the coffee table. Inspired by a desire to understand the nomadic way of life, Australian adventurer Tim Cope embarked on a remarkable journey: From novice rider to travelling three years in the saddle, - accompanied by his Kazakh dog, Tigon - Tim learnt to fend off wolves and would-be horse-thieves, and grapple with the extremes of the steppe as he crossed sub-zero plateaux, the scorching deserts of Kazakhstan and the high-mountain passes of the Carpathians. Along the way Tim was taken in by people who taught him the traditional ways and recounted their recent history:
Through the brutal process of collectivization he destroyed the autonomy the Russian peasant had enjoyed since the revolution, and he led an industrialization drive that has had few historic parallels. The human costs of both these initiatives were monstrous. It was during industrialization that the Soviet Union became truly totalitarian.
All the leaders of the Bolshevik revolution understood the inherent problem in starting a communist revolution in Russia: The transition from the old Russia to a truly communist state would require industrialization on a massive scale.
According to Marxist theory, only through a modern industrialized economy could a true proletariat class be developed as Marx makes no mention of a peasant class. Marxist theory aside, the need to industrialize was also a pragmatic matter of self-defense.
Stalin, either as a result of Collectivisation and industrialisation in russia or a simple distrust of the capitalist West, assumed his country would have to fight for its survival.
He presented the need to industrialize as a life or death struggle. We must make good this difference in ten years. Stalin saw increased centralization as the means to make the industrialization drive successful.
At the outset of the first five year plan inStalin instituted impossibly high production figures for factories to stir up zeal.
As Kenez points out, the unrealistic optimism of these goals can be seen by the fact that many of goals party leaders choose for industries were not reached until Kenez, Realistic state planning went out the window.
The propaganda, however, was extremely successful in that it accomplished its goal: In the first five year plan, which ended inthere was a fifty percent increase in industrial output with an average annual growth rate of eighteen percent, while the population of industrial workers doubled.
Much of this success can be attributed to the zeal with which the workers approached their work; they were mobilized as if for war, and were willing to accept lower standards of living as sacrifice for building a modern industrial infrastructure and economy.
John Scott, an American who worked building the city and factories at Magnitogorsk in the early thirties, describes the attitude of his coworkers in his book Behind the Urals.
They all seem to share an acceptance of deprivation today in exchange for the utopia of tomorrow. In many ways they had reason for this optimism: In particular the industrial workforce was growing, as many peasants moved from the countryside into the cities to escape collectivization.
Between and the urban population grew from 26 million to Between and the number of employed jumped from Women also joined the workforce in large numbers.
The increases in production were dramatic. During the first five year plan there was a fifty percent increase in overall industrial output and an average annual growth rate of eighteen percent. These statistics, however, do not take into account the poor quality of the goods produced.
By emphasizing output only, and by intentionally setting the target output levels unrealistically high, the Soviet leaders created a system in which poor quality done quickly was preferable to producing quality products at a slower rate. There was also the problem created by an entire workforce learning the skills necessary to run the newly built factories and plants all at once.
Many of the workers were from the peasantry and lacked any sort of educationand as a result, heavy industry was run inefficiently. Scott describes the inability of the workers to run the machinery they had been so busy building: The waste and inefficiency that plagued the struggle to make heavy industry work left over few resources for light industry and consumer goods.
Shelves in stores were often bare. Living conditions also remained abysmal. As workers poured into the cities a serious housing shortage emerged.
Often multiple families were forced to share small rooms Kenez, Still, despite all its failures, the rabid industrialization did close the gap between the Soviets and the West, and it is doubtful anything short of this kind of mass mobilization would have given Russia the means to withstand the Nazi onslaught a few years later.
The successes the industrialization drive did enjoy were the results of the transformation of the Russian agricultural system and the exploitation of the peasantry.Iosif Stalin Иосиф Сталин იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი. Holomodor Голодомор; Vítima do Holodomor numa rua da cidade ucraniana de kaja-net.com fotografia foi efectuada por um cooperante alemão, em This option provides for the study in depth of the coming and practice of communism in Russia.
4. Witte’s changes triggered a marked growth in industrial production and the movement of workers into the cities. 5. In economic terms the policy reforms were successful and helped Russia ‘catch up’ to western European powers – but they also created an industrial working class prone to grievances and revolutionary ideas. Jan 09, · Extract from a drama-documentary using Magnetogorsk as an example of Stalin's wider 5 Year Plans. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the s [Sheila Fitzpatrick] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Here is a pioneering account of everyday life under Stalin, written by a leading authority on modern Russian history. Focusing on the urban population.
It explores concepts such as Marxism, communism, Leninism, and Stalinism, ideological control and dictatorship. A useful revision guide looking at the benefits and disadvantages of structured interviews and postal questionnaires, for GCSE sociology.
Stalin's Five-year Plans dealt with industrial production, but something needed to be done about the food supply so Stalin introduced collectivisation. Jan 30, · It's revision time for me again! This one is an overview of the reasons why collectivisation was introduced by Stalin in Russia; it describes economic, ideological and political reasons.