These included biofuel compatibility, lightweight construction materials and technologies such as the removable carbon composite roof panels, regenerative brakesa stop-start systemand the ERAD electric rear axle drive parallel hybrid powertrain system. The Terrain Response system was also included offering sport and eco modes in addition to the existing grass, gravel, snow, and sand modes. Typical Land Rover design traits aim at improving off-road performance included a prominent driving position, hill descent controland useful approach and departure angles.
We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds e. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded.
These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested.
With current global debates around legalisation and medical uses of cannabis, research on whether the drug has detrimental cognitive effects, particularly for adolescents, is critically important for policy decisions.
Acutely, cannabis induces robust and dose-dependent episodic memory impairments Curran et al. More debated is whether there are persistent cognitive effects of using cannabis.
Although long-lasting neuropsychological impairments have been reported Crane et al. To date, two longitudinal investigations have specifically assessed the link between cannabis use and IQ. The decline in IQ remained apparent even for those who were no longer regular cannabis users at the time of adult IQ assessment.
These findings highlight the growing concern that adolescent cannabis use may be particularly detrimental to cognitive development. However, determining causality is challenging, since we cannot assume that cannabis users and non-users would have developed along similar trajectories if cannabis use had not occurred Rogeberg, Adolescents who use cannabis regularly also tend to have higher rates of social adversity von Sydow et al.
Relatedly, there is a wide evidence base linking adolescent cannabis use to early school leaving and poorer educational performance Fergusson et al. Typically, these associations are robust to adjustment for potential confounds, and one explanation for these findings is that cannabis use negatively impacts on cognitive ability and therefore academic performance.
However, the possibility of group differences in pre-exposure school performance is often not addressed, and adjustment for other related adolescent behaviours, such as use of other substances, has been limited. As such, the existence of unmeasured confounds is often posited as an explanation of negative associations with cannabis Fergusson et al.
Indeed, this is supported by recent genetic studies that found no difference in early school leaving between both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs who were discordant for cannabis use Grant et al.
Here, we examined the associations between adolescent cannabis use and both IQ and educational attainment within a large adolescent cohort sample. Assessing intellectual and educational outcomes in the same longitudinal cohort, with similar confounder adjustment, enables better integration of findings across both domains.
We considered several factors commonly associated with teenage cannabis use that may account for previously reported associations with IQ and educational performance.
In particular, we addressed the role of other drug use, using detailed measures of cigarette, alcohol and other recreational drug use. We hypothesised that cannabis use would be associated with both IQ and educational performance.
However, these associations may be attenuated by adjusting for confounders. The core cohort comprised 14, pregnancies, with 13, babies alive at one year Boyd et al. Following later recruitment of eligible cases that were not initially recruited, the cohort now comprises 15, foetuses, with 14, babies alive at one year.
IQ scores at both 8 and 15 years of age were available for participants.
The study website contains details of all available data through a fully searchable data dictionary http:Scribd es red social de lectura y publicación más importante del mundo. The new Range Rover Evoque has been revealed, with a series of new features and a revised focus on keeping fuel costs down.
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