It was his direct observation of the world around him, that steered the world to a more enlightened way of looking at the world. In Portugal navigation, exploration and mastery of the oceans dominated.
Establishments — Disestablishments The 16th century begins with the Julian year and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes.
This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. In Europethe Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In ItalyLuca Pacioli published the first work ever on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer.
In Englandthe Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle Eastthe Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliphwhile dealing with a resurgent Persia.
Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority- Sunni Muslim world.
China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule significantly influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universewhich was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the appearance of a Milky Way supernova.
These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotleand led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.One of the earliest sixteenth-century works of English literature, Thomas More's Utopia, was written in Latin for an international intellectual community.
It was only translated into English during the s, nearly a half-century after its original publication in Britain.
15th Century CE. The 15th century brought to the world, Leonardo da Vinci, one of the greatest geniuses of the Italian Renaissance.
It was his direct observation of the world around him, that steered the world to a more enlightened way of looking at the world. The 15th and 16th centuries saw a revolution in European history. Their world changed in every facet, from politics to economics to religion to the very fabric of society.
The change would not be an easy one.
The 16th century was a time of unprecedented change that saw the very beginning of the modern era of science, great exploration, religious and political turmoil, and extraordinary literature. ENGLİSGH LİTERATURE IN THE 15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES Social, political, cultural, religious, and historical background The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are the period of the European Renaissance or four great transforming movement of European history.
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years to In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, .